lgbbs双语文物:中国所见塞伊玛—图尔宾诺式倒钩铜矛的合金成分-文物英译版

双语文物:中国所见塞伊玛—图尔宾诺式倒钩铜矛的合金成分-文物英译版
The Alloy Compositions of Seima-Turbino Socketed Spearheads With Single Side Hooks Discovered in China
Rui Liu
Ph.D. Candidate, School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University
Jiangtao Gao
Associate Research Fellow, Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
Deming Kong
Research Fellow, Anyang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
中国所见塞伊玛—图尔宾诺式倒钩铜矛的合金成分
刘瑞(北京大学考古文博学院博士研究生)
高江涛(中国社会科学院考古研究所副研究员)
孔德铭(安阳市文物考古研究所研究员)
Seima-Turbino culture originated in the Altai Mountains and became widespread in the Eurasian Steppe. Bronze socketed spearheads with single side hooks, one of the most representative artifacts of this culture贝托蒂嘉, have been continuously discovered in China. In the early1950s, Soviet archaeologist Sergei Kiselev located a Seima-Turbino-style socketed spearhead with a single side hook in the Shaanxi History Museum. In 2014, Prof. Meicun Lin of Peking University offered a thorough discussion of Seima-Turbino-style spearheads黄家驹假死 , compiling a group of 10 examples.We have continued in this research, and have now compiled 13 examples of spearheads. Seven of them were collected separately, and are now held by Datong County Cultural Relics Administration, Qinghai Province (1 item), the Shaanxi History Museum (1 item), the Shanxi Provincial Museum of Arts and Crafts (1 item)夏目三久, the Shanxi Museum (1 item) and the Nanyang Municipal Museum (3 items). The other six items were unearthed from the Shenna site in Qinghai Province (1 item), the Xiawanggang site in Xichuan County, Henan Province (4 items) and the late Shang dynasty tomb at Yijiayuan Subdivision in Anyang City, Henan Province (1 item).
塞伊玛—图尔宾诺文化起源于阿尔泰山,后来在欧亚草原广泛传播酸蜂 。该文化的典型器——倒钩铜矛,近年在中国境内不断被发现。早在20世纪50年代,苏联考古学家吉谢列夫(Sergei Kiselev)就在陕西历史博物馆发现一件塞伊玛—图尔宾诺式倒钩铜矛。2014年,北京大学林梅村教授对中国境内发现的塞伊玛—图尔宾诺式铜矛详加讨论,共搜集到10件倒钩铜矛。随后,我们对此类铜矛继续追踪,目前已获知13件,其中7件为采集品,包括青海大通县文物管理所、陕西历史博物馆、山西省工艺美术馆、山西博物院征集品各1件,南阳市博物馆征集品3件;其余6件为发掘品,包括青海沈那遗址1件、河南淅川下王冈遗址4件、安阳宜家苑晚商墓1件。

Bronze knife (Gaochang Uygur Buddhist Temple Site Museum, Beiting
Township我的长孙皇后 , Jimsar County)
铜刀(吉木萨尔县北庭高昌回鹘佛寺遗址博物馆藏)
Over the course of this investigation, we tested the alloy compositions of 10 of the socketed spearheads with single side hooks using a Thermo Scientific (USA) Niton XL3t Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence [XRF] Analyzer. At the Shanxi Museum孙学武, we used the XL3t800 Analyzer set to the “Alloy” detection mode; at the Shaanxi History Museum, we used the XL3t-GOLDD+ Analyzer set to the “Metal – Standard Alloy” detection mode; and the others were examined using the XL3t90CSHE Analyzer set to the “Metal – Standard Alloy” detection mode. We selected a test point on the spearheads, either in an area without corrosion or, with the permission of the curators, removing rust deposits using sandpaper in order to ensure our targets were all substrate metal. Several different positions were tested, including near the midrib on both sides, the blades, the socket stems, the hooks and the side-loops. The obtained arsenic and lead XRF data and energy spectra were processed and analyzed in detail with specialized Niton XL3t NDT software. The test results are as follows.
在调查过程中,lgbbs 我们检测了其中10件倒钩铜矛的合金成分。在检测过程中,我们采用的设备均为美国热电公司(Thermo Fisher Niton)出产的Niton XL3t 系列手持式X射线荧光分析仪。其中古力查力度,山西博物院藏倒钩铜矛采用XL3t800型仪器,检测模式为“合金”;陕西历史博物馆藏倒钩铜矛采用XL3tGOLDD+型仪器,检测模式为“金属→常见金属”;其余倒钩铜矛则采用XL3t90CSHE型仪器,检测模式为“Metals→Standard Alloys”。在检测过程中,我们在铜矛正反面中脊、矛叶、銎柄、倒钩、系耳等不同部位选点;在条件允许的情况下,尽量用砂纸除锈,或在无锈伤痕处选点检测,力求检测到倒钩铜矛的金属本体,避免铜锈干扰。检测工作结束后,我们还用Niton XL3t系列XRF专用软件NDT分析检测数据的能谱图,对砷、铅等元素谱图曲线进行细致分析,确保分析结果的科学性。现将检测结果公布如下郑松标 。

Hollow-headed ax with socket stem (Ningbian Barn Site Museum, Changji City)
铜空首斧(昌吉市宁边粮仓遗址博物馆藏)
In summary, the Shanxi area should be considered just as important as the northwestern China area in the study of the origin of the smelting technology of arsenical bronze artifacts. The arsenical bronze smelting technology in these two areas is closely related to the acculturation of the Seima-Turbino culture in China, and the arsenical bronze spearheads in Nanyang City are closely correlated with the ones unearthed from these areas. Currently, our understanding of these spearheads we have investigated is still shallow, and based on the available data, we can only make a preliminary conjecture. Theorigins of arsenical bronze smelting technology will require further discussion in the future.
综上所述,在我国砷铜冶炼技术起源研究中,山西地区和西北地区一样,尤其值得关注。这两个区域的砷铜技术,井琳 很可能是随塞伊玛—图尔宾诺文化的扩散而传入中国的,而南阳所见砷铜矛又与上述两个区域出土砷铜矛关系密切。目前,我们对这批砷铜倒钩铜矛的认识仍相当肤浅,仅是根据现有材料的初步推测,我国砷铜技术起源模式仍有待进一步讨论。
Translated by Chenyuan Li朝鲜仁祖 , Ph.D. Candidate, Institute of Historical Metallurgy and Materials, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China
图文来源:Chinese Cultural RelicsVol. 3, No. 1-2魏依曼, 2016, pp. 413-424.
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